n. Any of several disorders that frequently interfere with sleep, occurring especially among children and including sleepwalking, night terrors, and bed-wetting.
[Probably para-1 + (in)somnia.]
Parasomnias are a category of sleep disorders that involve abnormal and unnatural movements, behaviors, emotions, perceptions, and dreams that occur while falling asleep, sleeping, between sleep stages, or arousal from sleep. Most parasomnias are dissociated sleep states which are partial arousals during the transitions between wakefulness and NREM sleep, or wakefulness and REM sleep.
What are the symptoms of insomnia and parasomnia? Insomnia is poor sleep, whereas parasomnia is the presence of abnormal events in sleep. When insomnia or parasomnia persists most nights a week for weeks, it can cause increased tension, decreased energy, and personality and mood changes. Movement disorders such as restless legs at bedtime can cause difficulty falling asleep. In this condition, the legs feel restless when going to bed, and moving them about helps. This is usually accompanied by periodic limb movements (PLMs) or jerks of the arms or legs which cause repeated arousals. Sleep apnea can cause non-refre…
* Primary parasomnias arise without an underlying physical cause and may be classified by the stage of sleep in which they occur, as REM, Non-REM (NREM) or miscellaneous (no specific stage affected). They are also classified diagnostically on the basis of their characteristic presentation.
* Secondary parasomnias are disorders caused by accompanying physical/psychiatric disturbance leading to sleep-related symptoms, e.g. seizures, cardiac dysrhythmia or dysfunction, respiratory dysfunction and gastro-oesophageal reflux.
* Dyssomnias such as insomnia, in contrast, are disorders of the initiation, timing, quality, maintenance or phasing of sleep and are not usually associated with aberrant behaviour or experiences.
* Night terrors and sleepwalking are sometimes called arousal parasomnias.
* Sleep disorders are being reported more often as they become more recognised and deemed as suitable conditions for treatment by the medical profession.2
* A Turkish survey of pre-adolescent school-aged children found a 14.4% prevalence of parasomnias. About 1 in 6 children had at least one parasomnia. Bruxism, nocturnal enuresis (considered by some to be a parasomnia) and night terrors were the most common types.
What is it?
Sleep terrors is also called “night terrors.” It is a parasomnia. A parasomnia involves undesired events that come along with sleep.
In a typical episode, you will sit up in bed and pierce the night with a “blood-curdling” scream or shout. This scream can include kicking and thrashing. You may say or shout things that others are unable to understand. You will also have a look of intense fear with eyes wide open and heart racing. You may also sweat, breathe heavily and be very tense. At times, you may even bolt out of bed and run around the house. This response is more common in adults. It may also lead to violent actions.
Individuals having an episode of sleep terrors will not respond to voices and can be hard to wake up. Once they do wake up, they will be very confused. They may not know where they are or what is going on. Most often, they will not have any memory of what took place. At times, they may recall brief bits of a dream. This dream will likely involve great danger or fright. It can take a long time to comfort the patient once the episode is over.
It most often occurs in the first third of the time that you are asleep. This is during the slow-wave cycle of sleep. Episodes in adults can occur at any time in the sleep cycle. Adults are also more likely to recall a dream that was a part of the event.
Serious and even deadly injury can occur. Attempts to escape from bed or to fight can result in harm to the patient or others. Individuals may be embarrassed by the sleep terrors. This can greatly affect their relationships with others.
Who gets it?
It is more common in children and affects males and females equally. It may affect as many as 6.5% of all children. It tends to begin when a child is four to 12 years old. Children with sleep terrors will often talk in their sleep and sleepwalk.
In rare cases, it can begin in adulthood. Overall, only about 2.2% of adults have it. Very few people over the age of 65 have sleep terrors.
There is a strong genetic and family link. It can occur in several members of the same family.
Many adults who have sleep terrors are also likely to have a history of one of the following:
* Bipolar disorder
* Some depressive disorders
* Anxiety disorders
It is unclear how closely it may be linked to these mental disorders in adults. In children, there does not seem to be any connection between mental disorders and sleep terrors.
Episodes of sleep terrors and sleepwalking share many of the same causes. These include the following:
* Sleep deprivation
* Hyperthyroidism (overproduction of thyroid hormones)
* Migraine headaches
* Head injury
* Encephalitis (brain swelling)
* The premenstrual period
* Bloated stomach
* Physical or emotional stress
* Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
* Other sleep-related disorders or events
* Sleeping in unfamiliar surroundings
* Some medications
* Alcohol use and abuse
* Noise or light
* Fevers in children
I realize that this primarily covers children’s issues with night terrors, but never the less an update on the issue.
By Tudor Vieru, Science Editor
1st of December 2008, 10:07 GMT
A new research, published in the journal Pediatrics on Monday, showed that genetics played a very important role in the onset of night terrors in children aged under 18 months. The results were obtained after researchers at Montreal’s Sacre-Coeur Hospital Sleep Disorders Center, in Canada, studied 390 twin pairs, both identical and fraternal.
However, Dr. Bich Hong Nguyen’s team failed to identify the exact genes that trigger these manifestations, which often end up with children waking up in screams. This kind of terrors were proven to be more likely to appear in identical twins, seeing how their genetic make-up is very similar, and that they grow under the same circumstances throughout their childhood.
This closeness that identical twins display led scientists to believe that environmental factors could be at work to trigger these episodes. But further studies of fraternal, or dizygotic, twins revealed that they also experienced similar behavior, though they were living separately and shared very little experiences in common. Having noticed that, the researchers hypothesized that genetic factors can also play an essential role in such conditions as sleepwalking and sleep talking.
“The onset of sleep terrors is abrupt and frightening, usually sudden arousal with screaming. During these events children seem confused and disoriented. Any attempt to awaken them may increase their agitation and prolong their episode,” reads the recently-published paper, where the researchers try to distinguish between night terrors and nightmares. They also say that, in the kids they observed, most pairs seemed to move past night terrors when they were 30-months old.
Nightmares are usually remembered the next morning, and people tell their stories all the time. But terrors are mostly a thing of the subconscious, the researchers say, and could represent an outbreak of our ancestral brain, similar to that which causes most children, and even grown-ups, to fear the dark.